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F7ABBTZS - Tomographical Imaging Systems

Code Completion Credits Range Language
F7ABBTZS Z,ZK 4 2P+1C+1L English
Enrollement in the course requires an successful completion of the following courses:
Conventional Imaging Systems (F7ABBKZS)
Martin Rožánek (guarantor), Tomáš Dřížďal, Jiří Hozman
Martin Rožánek (guarantor), Evgeniia Mardanshina, Petr Volf
Department of Biomedical Technology

CT systems (basic principle, schematic arrangement system, basic physical principle, developmental generations, basic principles of reconstruction). Imaging systems magnetic resonance. PET and SPECT principle. Specialized imaging systems (hybride). Ultrasound imaging systems. Doppler systems. Subject and especially laboratory exercises provide students with an insight into the principles of creating image data used in medicine, the principle of methods their scanning, digitization and subsequent processing, on the principle of function and properties of scanning image means in context, which is important especially in terms of interdisciplinarity of the subject and the field as a whole.


Attendance is mandatory at all exercises. Absence is only possible for serious reasons

worth considering (must be documented).

At the end of each lesson, the teacher must be given a task for the current week.

It is not possible to implement it without obtaining the credit and its registration in the IS ČVUT KOS


The exam consists of a written test, where there is a combined variant of the type answer

ABC (always one correct) - 1 point, ie 0 or 1 point and a variant when needed

answer in writing (open questions) - 5 points, ie from 0 to 5 points (important

questions). A total of 52 questions, of which 40 MCQ (abc) for 1 point and 12 questions each

open after 5 points. Correct answer according to type 0 to 5 points, mark more

answer means 0 points, no answer means 0 points, wrong answer

means zero points. Minimum 50 points, max 100 points. Test evaluation according to

ECTS tables listed in SZŘ ČVUT. The total time set aside for the test is 90

minutes. After correcting the test, an oral examination is possible to a better degree, if any

the result of the test at the interface of classification levels (typically by 2 points).

Syllabus of lectures:

1. CT - disadvantages of conventional X-ray diagnostics. Basic principle of CT. System layout. Basic physical principle

CT. Developmental generations of CT. HW and SW.

2. CT - Helical CT X-ray, multi-slice CT X-ray (MSCT, MDCT), DSCT / DECT. CT number, CT system detectors.

3. CT - Basic principles of image reconstruction in CT systems (direct back projection, Radon transformation,

filtered back projection)

4. CT - Analytical reconstruction of CT systems (2D Fourier transform, iterative reconstruction)

5. MR - Physical nature (spin, precession, Larmor frequency). Radio frequencies in magnetic field, phase

coherence and precession, resonance, HF pulse, MR signal generation, free precession signal (FID)

6. MR - Relaxation, relaxation times, or time constants T1, T2, HF pulse, the relationship between pulse sequences and contrast, SR, SE and

IR sequence, weighted image parameters and relation to TE and TR times.

7. MR - Coding of spatial position of volume element (voxel), gradient field, meaning of pulse diagrams

(sequences, protocols)

8. MR - The essence of the Fourier reconstruction method, the basic components of the MR system.

9. Computed tomography systems in nuclear medicine (SPECT, PET)

10. Hybrid imaging systems (SPECT / CT, PET / CT, MR / PET, molecular imaging), preclinical imaging


11. Ultrasound imaging systems - basic quantities of sound field, electromechanical analogies. Ultrasound probes (construction,

parameters, properties).

12. Ultrasound imaging systems - general structure. Distribution (linear, sectoral). Mechanical and electronic systems

decomposition. Spatial resolution. Focusing. Display modes (A, B, C, M or TM).

13. Ultrasound Doppler systems (Doppler effect, applications in medicine, general scheme of demodulation)

14. Ultrasonic Doppler systems (demodulation based on FFT, arrangement of CW, PW, parameters, properties)

Syllabus of tutorials:

Exercises will take place both in the PC classroom and in the laboratory of CTU FBMI.

1. CT systems: reconstruction algorithms (direct back projection) (task in PC classroom)

2. CT systems: reconstruction algorithms (filtered back projection) (task in PC classroom)

3. CT systems: reconstruction algorithms (iterative method) (task in PC classroom)

4. CT systems: reconstruction algorithms (method based on 2D FT) (task in PC classroom)

5. CT systems: (experimental task in the laboratory with the PHYWE system)

6. MR systems: influence of relaxation times on image contrast (role in PC classroom on model in Matlab)

7. MR systems: k-space (task in PC classroom on model in Matlab)

8. MR systems: principle of image creation (task in PC classroom on model in Matlab)

9. SPECT, PET (role in PC classroom on model in Matlab)

10. Hybrid imaging systems (task in PC classroom on model in Matlab)

11. Ultrasound systems (task in PC classroom)

12. Ultrasound systems (experimental task in the laboratory)

13. Ultrasound Doppler systems (task in PC classroom)

14. Ultrasound Doppler systems (experimental task in the laboratory)

Study Objective:

The aim is to acquaint students with the general basics of the theory of the imaging process, methods of scanning, evaluation and processing image information, properties of image signals, principles of image creation, structural arrangement and with a general quantitative assessment of the quality of imaging modalities used in medicine and the resulting limitations and risks.

Study materials:

Mandatory sources:

[1] Webb's physics of medical imaging. 2nd ed. Editor M. A. FLOWER. Boca Raton: CRC, c2012. Series in medical physics and biomedical engineering. ISBN 978-0-7503-0573-0. (1st ed. is also available in library)

[2] BUSHBERG, Jerrold T., J. Anthony SEIBERT, Edwin M. LEIDHOLDT a John M. BOONE. The essential physics of medical imaging. Third edition. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2012. ISBN 978-1-4511-1810-0.

[3] LANCASTER, Jack L. a Bruce H. HASEGAWA. Fundamental mathematics and physics of medical imaging. Boca Raton: CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, 2017. Series in medical physics and biomedical engineering. ISBN 978-14987-5161-2.

Recommended sources:

[1] Questions and Answers in MRI [online]. AD Elster, ELSTER LLC, c2017. Poslední změna 2017 [cit. 2017-09-27]. URL:

[2] POWSNER, Rachel A., Matthew R. PALMER a Edward R. POWSNER. Essentials of nuclear medicine physics and instrumentation. 3rd ed. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, c2013. ISBN 978-0-470-90550-0. (previous eds. are also available in library)

[3] HRAZDIRA, Ivo a Vojtěch MORNSTEIN. Fundamentals of biophysics and medical technology. 2nd, rev. ed. Brno: Masaryk University, 2012. ISBN 978-80-210-5758-6. [4] GILL, Robert W. Physics and technology of diagnostic ultrasound: study guide. Sydney: High Frequency Publishing, 2016. ISBN 9780987292148.

The course is a part of the following study plans:

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Others - link: 

Lectures time schedule for F7ABBTZS in AY2022/2023 WS |

Exercises time schedule for F7ABBTZS in AY2022/2023 WS |