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17AMBZS - Imaging Systems

Code Completion Credits Range Language
17AMBZS Z,ZK 4 2+2
Jiří Hozman (guarantor), Martin Rožánek
Martin Rožánek, Petr Volf
Department of Biomedical Technology

Electromagnetic radiation and relationship to the medical imaging systems. Imaging theory fundamentals. 2D Fourier transform and related applications. Transfer properties of imaging systems. Optical imaging systems. Television (TV) imaging systems (including videoendoscopy and capsule imaging). Fundamentals of image processing. Imaging systems using infrared radiotion (termovision systems). X-ray imaging systems. X-ray TV medical imaging systems. Nuclear medical imaging systems. Ultrasound medical imaging systems. Doppler systems. Computed tomography (basic idea, schematic system arrangement, basic physical principle, development generation, basic principles of reconstruction). Magnetic resonance imaging. Positron emission tomography (PET) and Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT).Specialized medical imaging systems. Lectures and laboratory exercises offer to students view on the medical image data formation, on the sensing and scanning principles, on the digitization and processing, on the functional principle and image sensing devices as well. There are very important mutual relationships, which are important from the point of view of subject and study branch interdisciplinarity.


Course requirement:

Physics from the point of view of the interaction of radiation with matter, particle physics, optics, and from this follows the requirements for a prerequisite for registration of the course. The theory of systems it is also suitable for.

Assessment and exam requirements:

Participation is mandatory on all exercises. Non-participation is possible for serious reasons only (to be substantiated).

At the end of each lesson (exercise in PC lab), the fulfilled assignment must be given to the teacher for the current week.

It is not possible to take the exam without obtaining the credit and enrolling it in the CTU IS KOS.

The exam is based on the written test and this one consists of a two variants of questions. The so called MCQ, i.e. ABC answer variant (one answer is correct only) with 1 point, i.e. 0 or 1 point. Marking multiple answers means 0 points, no answer means 0 points, bad answer means zero points. The second variant of answers includes the so called open questions (important questions), i.e. 5 points (0 to 5 points). Correct answer can be assessed from 0 to 5 points based on quality of the answer. The whole test consists of a total of 36 questions, of which 20 MCQ (abc) for 1 point and 16 open questions for 5 points. There is required minimum 50 points and there is available max. 100 points. Assessment of the test according to ECTS table (classification grades) is given in the CTU Study and examination code. The total time reserved for the test is 120 minutes. After the test, this one is corrected and there is possible to improve the whole test result if the test result is at the grade boundaries (typically max. by -2 points).

Syllabus of lectures:

1. Course introduction, conditions for assessment and exam, electromagnetic spectrum and relationship to the medical imaging modalities

2. Transfer properties of the medical imaging systems (MIS)

3. TV imaging systems + Fundamentals of image sensing and digitization

4. Endoscopy medical imaging systems

5. X-ray MIS, X ray TV systems, DDR

6. Infrared MIS, thermovision cameras

7. Computed tomography - principle, detectors, reconstruction pricniples

8. Ultrasound MIS 1st part

9. Ultrasound MIS 2nd part, Doppler systems

10. Magnetic resonance imaging

11. NMI - Anger gamma camera, PET, SPECT

Syllabus of tutorials:

1. Introduction into the Matlab, harmonic signal, FFT, Sin and square signal in 1D and 2D, their spectra, brightness and contrast

2. Brightness and contrast perception, histogram equalization, image compression fundamentals, 2D convolution, edge detection principle

3. Modulation transfer function (MTF), relationship to the image quality, MTF evaluation

4. DICOM data

5. X-ray image

6. DSA

7. CT principle, Radon space

8. CT - Back projection, filtered back projection

9. CT - Iterative reconstruction

10. MRI - demonstration in Matlab

11. Practical exercises - X-ray and ultrasound medical image systems (students will be divided into two groups and after the 40 minutes these groups will changed)

12. Practical exercises - infrared (thermovision) and endoscopy medical image systems (students will be divided into two groups and after the 40 minutes these groups will changed)

Study Objective:

To give the students information about physical-technical principles of conventional image formation in imaging systems and tomographical imaging systems. The idea is to

understand limiting principles and parameters of these imaging systems. Based on this understanding, the student will be able to decide whether or not medical doctors requirements are satisfied.

Study materials:


[1] Webb's physics of medical imaging. 2nd ed. Editor M. A. FLOWER. Boca Raton: CRC, c2012. Series in medical physics and biomedical engineering. ISBN 978-0-7503-0573-0.

[2] Hozman, J., Roubík, K. Tomographical medical imaging systems - CT - . Educational programme. Praha: AVTC ČVUT, 2002.


[3] Questions and Answers in MRI [online]. AD Elster, ELSTER LLC, c2017. Poslední změna 2017 [cit. 2017-09-27]. URL:

[4] POWSNER, Rachel A., Matthew R. PALMER a Edward R. POWSNER. Essentials of nuclear medicine physics and instrumentation. 3rd ed. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, c2013. ISBN 978-0-470-90550-0.

The course is a part of the following study plans:

Lectures - link: 

Image Sensing and Digitization - Microscopy Imaging Systems - educational SW MIPS |

Tomographical Imaging Methods in Medicine – CT (educational video) |

Principles of BW television systems (educational video used - use Save as) |

Principles of color television systems (educational video - use Save as) |

Image sensors (educational video - use Save as) |

Image displays (educational video - use Save as) |

Others - link: 

Timeschedule of lectures within the 17AMBZS in WS1718 - ver. 2 - valid from 6.11.2017 |

Timeschedule of exercises within the 17AMBZS in WS1718 |