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17AMBOSD - Image Sensors, Displays, Cathode-ray Tubes and Projection Systems

Code Completion Credits Range Language
17AMBOSD KZ 3 1+1
Jiří Hozman (guarantor)
Petr Volf
Department of Biomedical Technology

The aim of the course is to give students an overview of the principles and applications of image sensors , displays , screens and projection systems in medicine. In particular, there are specific and image sensors for various spectral ranges (physical principles, properties, parameters, application possibilities - vacuum sensing tubes, photomultiplier tubes and solid-state detectors or sensors APD, CCD, CID, CMOS, CIS, etc.). Overview of different kinds of display monitors. Display type as TFT LCD, plasma technology, LED, LCD monitors for special medical facilities and diagnostic imaging purposes, the calibration of gray levels, the quality of the geometric view, the number of gray levels, etc. Principles of electron optics. The basic design of black and white and color CRTs. External devices of the CRTs. Geometric distortion and correction. The convergence circuits and coils. The various types of CRTs in terms of nozzle configuration and shape of the mask. Equipment with vacuum projection screens. Projectors based on the LCD liquid crystal. Television projectors walls. Reflecting a mirror DLP projectors. Laser projection. Active mosaic display area. The EIDOPHOR and systems with ILA light amplifier. Stereoscopic 3D display (passive and active systems). Application and use of simulators and virtual machines based on the above mentioned tools for medical purposes.


Criteria for obtaining of kl.z. (classified assessment):

C1. Attendance is mandatory (apologies only in case of serious documented reasons).

C2. Student has to be prepared on the exercise according to documents prepared for the laboratory experiments and by lecturers (see below description of the test).

C3. Over the semester, it is possible to get 100 points. Conversion to evaluation (A, B, C, D, E, F) will be held according to the ECTS grading scale listed in the study and examination regulations of CTU.

C4. Points can be obtained for the successful completion test at the beginning of each exercise (a total of 3 tests), for participation and written protocols for the task selected in the following proportions: mandatory (at least 1 protocol) / voluntary well processed protocol (max. 2 reports) 10 points (max. 3x10, i.e. 30 points), with the participation of 10 points and 20 points test (test 3 times, i.e. 60 points max. and 30 minimum). In total, min. 50 points - E, up 100 points - A.

C5. The test consists of 5 questions each for 4 points (max. 20 points, min. 10 points). Two questions are based on the previous content and related lectures and three questions are based on the laboratory preparation topics.

Syllabus of lectures:

1. General physical principles utilized in the field of sensors and displays

2. Basic principles of optical imaging systems

3. Image sensors - VIS - physical principles - Part 1

4. Image sensors - VIS - arangements, implementation, parameters - Part 2

5. Image sensors IR, UV, X-ray and gamma - physical principles - Part 3

6. Image sensors IR, UV, X-ray and gamma - arangements, implementation, parameters - Part 4

7. Image display and projection systems

Block A. The basic physical principles - external and internal photoeffect, photocathode, pyroelectric effect, photomultiplier, scintillation, luminescence, image intensifier - vacuum, MCP, electron optics, the bolometer, thermocouple, wave-particle dualism, radiation ACT, photometry, radiometry, spectroscopy. Basic principles of optical imaging systems - pinhole camera, display a thin lens, lens equation, geometrical and wave optics, aperture, depth of field, resolution, light sensor, optical defects, types of lenses, microscopes, telescopes, MTF, PSF, OTF. AR layer (there is possible to use the tutorial videos in English)

Block B Basic types of image sensors - Vidicon, CMOS, CCD, APS, Foveon, structure and properties as a 2D image sensor sampling, moire, radiometry, photometry, colorimetry - color vision system RGB, XYZ system, conversions of the color spaces, color temperature, dichroic mirrors and color splitting prism, CFA. Sensors IR region - the photoresist field, microbolometer, CCD, pyroelectric. Sensors UV, X and gamma rays. Multispectral and hyperspectral sensing (there is possible to use the tutorial videos in English)

Block C Basic types of video displays ? CRTs/screen black and white and color, LCD, plasma, OLED (PLED), DMD, FED, SED, types of bitmaps, structure and properties. Basic types of video projectors - LCD, DMD, laser, design and characteristics, stereoscopic vision - 3D view - basic principles of scanning and imaging (there is possible to use the tutorial videos in English).

Syllabus of tutorials:

1. Characteristics of integral detectors (measuring parameters and radiation characteristics)

2. Measurement of the basic parameters of the CCD and CMOS image sensors

3. Measurement of the depth of field

4. Measurement of the focal length of the lens by the direct method

5. The modulation transfer function (MTF) of digital camera

6. The transfer characteristic of the display

7. The fiber spectrometer (color rendering via display)

Block A. Characteristics of integral detectors - VA, spectral, temporal, luxamper, integral characteristics of sources - LED photometry (light meter), radiometry - VIS radiation pattern of LED and IR LED

Block B. pinhole camera, depth of field, resolution and MTF, HDR, lens parameters, conversion characteristics of the camera, the color temperature, compensation of white color, scanner - resolution, scan time parameters of TV system

Block C. The transfer characteristic of the display, color calibration, real gamut, test pattern Siemensova rose and zone plate

Study Objective:

The aim of the course is to give students an overview of the principles and applications of image sensors, displays, screens and projection systems in medicine.

Study materials:

[1] Nakamura, J. (ed.): Image sensors and signal processing for digital still cameras. Boca Raton : CRC Press, 2006. 350 p. ISBN: 978-0-8493-3545-7.

[2] Gerald, G.C.: CCD Arrays, Cameras, and Displays. 1998

[3] Gerald, G.C.: Electro-Optical Imaging System Performance (PM187) (Spie Press Monograph). 2008.

[4] HOLST, Gerald C. Sampling, aliasing, and data fidelity for electronic imaging systems, communications, and data acquisition. Winter Park (Florida): JCD Publishing; Bellingham (Washington): SPIE PRESS, 1998, 342 s. ISBN 0-9640000-3-2; ISBN 0-8194-2763-2.

[5] Gupta, M. C. Handbook of Photonics. CRC Press, 2000.

The course is a part of the following study plans:

Lectures - link: 

Image sensors (educational video - use Save as) |

Image displays (educational video - use Save as) |

Tutorials from the field of the image sensors including CCD, CMOS, X-ray, IR, PMT and II |

Handbook of Optics (chapters including sensors and displays) |

LCD and LED display difference |

3LCD versus 1DLP projector |

New technology - SPUD (Spontaneous Pop-Up Display) |

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