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17AMBMPZ - Methods and Devices for Processing, Compression and Recording of Image Signal

Code Completion Credits Range Language
17AMBMPZ Z 3 1+1
Jiří Hozman (guarantor)
Petr Volf
Department of Biomedical Technology

The general system for image processing. Fundamentals of imaging based on image sensors. Sampling, quantization and representation of digital image. Aliasing. The transfer properties of the imaging system. Color image sensing. Summary of image formats. Digitizing rasters. The video signal. A/D converters of video signal, frame-grabber. HW and SW tools for image processing. Compression methods. Compression standards. Signal recording methods. Digital signal recording. Compression of the audio signal. Selected recording standards for video and audio recording.


Criteria for assessment:

C1. Attendance is mandatory (serious documented reasons are accepted only).

C2. Students must be prepared according to the exercise documents and lectures as well (see below test).

C3. Over the semester, it is possible to get 100 points.

C4. Points can be obtained via passing the written test at the beginning of each exercise (total of 5 tests with 4 opened questions). In total, min. 50 points and max. 100 points. Credit is given for the number of points equal to or higher than 50 points.

C5. Within the test there is always 5 questions each for 4 points (max. 20 points, min. 10 points). Questions are from the previous content and related lectures and from the laboratory work.

Syllabus of lectures:

1. Image digitization - Introduction - Part 1

2. Image digitization - continued - Part 2

3. HW and SW for image processing

4. Image compression - methods

5. Image compression - standards

6. Audio signal recording

7. Video signal recording

A. Video signal digitization

B. Video signal compression

C. HW and SW for image processing

D. Video signal recording

Part A. Video signal digitization

A1) Introduction. Examples of applications where an image processing is used. Main parts of the general system for the image processing. Fundamentals of imaging based on the image sensors.

A2) Sampling, quantization and representation of digital image. Aliasing, moiré effect. Description of the transfer properties of the imaging system, PSF, MTF. Color image sensing, Bayer´s mask, interpolation.

A3) Overview of image formats, raster and vector formats, pallet formats. Digitizing rasters.

Part B. Video signal compression

B1) compression methods - basic characteristics of visual information, the basic principles of image and video compression, redundant and irrelevant information, lossy and lossless coding (Shannon), DPCM and prediction model, DCT including quantization, RLE, dictionary methods (LZW), VLC (Huffman, arithmetic), motion detection and prediction, vector quantization, SBC, wavelet transform, fractals, encoding using the model.

B2) Compression Standards - JPEG, JPEG 2000, MPEG -2, MPEG 4-2, H.264 / AVC (MPEG 4 - 10), image databases

Part C. HW and SW for image processing

C1) Video signal and its properties. Overview and functions of the A/D video signal converters, frame-grabber. Aspects of the digital video signal transmission. HW implementation of image processing algorithms (FPGA, GPU). PC interfaces (USB 3.0, FireWire (IEEE1394), CameraLink).

C2) SW interfaces for video capture (TWAIN, WIA). Software for image processing (DirectShow, OpenCV, Matlab).

Part D. Video signal recording

D1) Introduction, historical overview of the formats of video and audio recording. Overview of signal recording methods - mechanical, magnetic, optical, magneto-optic and fixed memory recording.

D2) Specifics of digital signal recording. Anti-error security of record. Audio signal compression - principles, standards MPEG, ATRAC, Ogg Vorbis.

D3) Overview of selected recording standards for video and audio recording. CD, DAT, MiniDisc, SACD, DVD-A, VHS, Betacam, HDCAM, DV, DVD-V, XDCAM (BD), XDCAM-HD, XDCAM-EX

Syllabus of tutorials:

1. VHS - video recording with rotating heads - resolution measurements based on the measuring line.

2. CD Recording - comparing of time graphs and spectra for PCM and DSD signal. Comparison of the spectra of compressed signals - MPEG, WMA.

3. Image compression experiment - the basic procedure for implementation of JPEG format, evaluation of image quality, the use of integral transforms (spectrum)

4. Image sampling and quantization. Test pattern design, aliasing.

5. Color image sensing, interpolation based on the Bayer mask. Image format reading and identification of data in the header file.

6. Imaging systém PSF and MTF.

7. A/D converter, frame grabber. Matlab as tool for communication with video signal device

Study Objective:

The main aim of the course is to provide students with basic knowledge about the principles of digitizing the video signal, an overview of the hardware and software products for image processing, the video signal compression methods and selected methods of video and audio signals recording. After completing the course, students will be able to consider the suitability of the device for this purpose and will be able to suggest a set of system for hardware and software image processing for the selected applications especially within the biomedical engineering, as well as biology and medicine.

Study materials:

[1] Sonka, M., Hlavac, V., Boyle, R.: Image Processing, Analysis, and Machine Vision. 4th ed. Cengage Learning, 2014. 912 p. ISBN-13: 978-1133593607

[2] Educational texty. Image Acquisition and Processing in Biomedical Microscopy. [online]. Jiří Hozman, c2002-2013. Last modified 17. 10. 2012 [cit. 2014-09-23]. URL:

[3] HOLST, Gerald C. Sampling, aliasing, and data fidelity for electronic imaging systems, communications, and data acquisition. Winter Park (Florida): JCD Publishing; Bellingham (Washington): SPIE PRESS, 1998, 342 s. ISBN 0-9640000-3-2; ISBN 0-8194-2763-2.

[4] Mitchell, Joan L.: MPEG Video Compression Standard. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1996. Holladay, UT, USA. ISBN 9780306469831.

[5] Acharya, Tinku: JPEG2000 Standard for Image Compression : Concepts, Algorithms and VLSI Architectures. John Wiley. Tsai, Ping-Sing. 2005. Hoboken, NJ, USA. ISBN 9780471653752.

The course is a part of the following study plans: