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17AMBAEM - Electromagnetic Field in Medicine

Code Completion Credits Range Language
17AMBAEM Z,ZK 5 2+2
David Vrba (guarantor)
David Vrba (guarantor)
Department of Biomedical Technology

The major aim of these lectures is to explain to students the present and probable future possibilities of microwave medical applications. Biological thermal and non-thermal effects of electromagnetic field as well as safety limits are discussed. Microwave thermotherapy applied to cancer and other diseases is described. Details of microwave thermotherapy apparatus are given, especially from the point of view of applicators for local, intracavitary and regional treatment.


Assessment: active participation on the solution of excercises

Examination: fulfillment of requirements for assessment, knowledges covering the extent of the course

Syllabus of lectures:

1. Radiofrequency and microwave applications in medicine.

2. Overview of basic quantities of electric and magnetic field and electromagnetic EM theory.

3. Maxwell equations, boundary conditions and numerical solutions.

4. Interaction of EM field with matter, dielectric properties of biological tissues.

5. Biological effects of electromagnetic field, safety limits.

6. Radiofrequency and microwave hyperthermia: working principles, clinical results, and technical equipment.

7. Capacitive, rectangular waveguide, planar, evanescent mode waveguide, intracavitary and interstitial applicators.

8. Metamaterail based applicators and applicators for regional treatment.

9. Methods for experimental verification of applicator properties.

10. Pennes' bioheat equation, initial to steady state.

11. Treatment planning.

12. Invasive thermometry using thermocouples, thermistors and optical sensors. Non-invasive thermometry using MRI, microwave radiometer and microwave imaging.

13. EM imaging- overview (radiometer, microwave tomography, electrical impedance tomography).

14. Applications of microwave imaging - early stage breast cancer detection, detection and identification of brain strokes, non-invasive blood glucose monitoring, measurement of water in lungs level.

Syllabus of tutorials:

1. Introduction to exercises and safety in laboratory.

2. Computation of EM field quantities.

3. 1D numerical simulator of propagation of planar wave in biological tissue - implementation in MATLAB.

4. Measurement of dielectric properties of biological tissue phantoms.

5. Measurement of EM field exposure and verification of fulfillment of safety limits.

6. COMSOL Multiphysics: 2D numerical modeling of Intracavitary MW ablation

7. COMSOL Multiphysics: Rectangular waveguide, analysis of EM field

8. COMSOL Multiphysics: Optimization of rectangular waveguide applicator geometry

9. Verification of applicator properties - measurement of reflection coefficient and temperature distribution in the phantom of biological tissue.

10. COMSOL Multiphysics: Numerical simulation of local microwave hyperthermia with rectangular-waveguide based applicator

11. Treatment planning in full-wave EM simulation tools using patient specific numerical model.

12. Microwave radiometry.

13. Differential microwave imaging for temperature monitoring as well as for brain stroke detection.

14. Assessments.

Study Objective:

The goal of the course is to introduce students to the fundamentals of EM field applications in modern medicine, particularly in diagnostics and therapy.

Study materials:

[1] Int. Journal of Hyperthermia

[2] D. M. Pozar, Microwave Engineering, 3rd ed. Wiley John + Sons, 2004.

[3] R. F. Harrington, Time-Harmonic Electromagnetic Fields. McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1961.

The course is a part of the following study plans: