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17ABBESL - Electronic Elements and Sensors in Medicine

Code Completion Credits Range Language
17ABBESL Z,ZK 4 2+2
Grading of the course requires grading of the following courses:
Theory of Electrical Engineering (17ABBTEL)
Miroslav Husák (guarantor)
Jana Štěpanovská, David Vrba
Department of Biomedical Technology

This subject provides information about basic electronic devices and sensors, describes their operation principle, basic circuit configuration and application in biomedicine. The stress is aid mainly on clarifying of basic principles and practical utilization. Students are introduces with basic passive electronic devices (resistors, capacitors, inductors), with their design and fabrication and with equivalent circuits and models. The next topic is engaged in basic effects in semiconductors and PN junction operation principle, diodes and their application (rectifiers, stabilizers), bipolar and unipolar transistors (amplifiers, switchers, temperature characteristics), multilayer semiconductor devices for high-power applications, technologies for integrated circuit fabrication and vacuum devices. Integral part of this course is basic information about sensors of non-electric quantities and their read-out circuits eg. strain related sensors (force, pressure, torque, vibration, displacement, acceleration etc.) magnetic field sensors, temperature sensors, chemical sensors, optical sensors and biosensors. The stress is aid on miniaturization, integration and application in biomedicine.


Conditions of credit: The visit and measurement of all excercises, check of remarks from measurements.

Conditions of exam: Successful credit fulfilment (20%)Successful test fulfilment (80%)

Syllabus of lectures:

1.Passive electronic devices (resistor, inductor, capacitor), ideal models of the real devices with the parasitic effects, manufacturing technologies, selection series (E12, E24, E48, E96, E192), tolerances

2.Semiconductors properties, energy band diagram, current conduction, P-N junction, Shockley equation, Metal - Semiconductor junction

3.Semiconductor diodes, PIN diode, avalanche breakdown effect, Zener breakdown effect, temperature dependency of the diode, Schottky diode, tunnel diode

4.Bipolar junction transistor, transistor effect, characteristics, linear models, applications of bipolar transistors, temperature effect, bias point, cut off frequency, configurations common emitter, common collector, common base.

5.Transistors JFET, and MESFET - operation principles, operation modes, properties and models. MIS structure and MOS transistors - types, properties and equivalent linear models.

6.Multilayer switching devices (diac, triac, tyhristor), devices for high power applications, principle of cooling, practical applications

7.Basic structural members for integration circuits, operational amplifiers, protection circuit structures, technologies, DTL, TTL, STTL, CMOS, BiCMOS, BCD. Sequential and combinational logic.

8.Optoelectronic devices, photo detectors, LED and injection laser diodes, vacuum devices (electron tube, photomultiplier, display devices)

9.Sensors as electronic devices for evaluation of the no electrical signals - applications, basic types. Basic sensors properties, their equivalence with the properties of the electronic devices and interconnections with the electronic circuits.

10.Posture sensors, tactile sensors for medicine, force sensors, pressure sensors, vibration detectors, torque detectors, accelerometers, flow meters, liquid level sensors - principles and applications in the medicine

11.Humidity sensors, magnetic field sensors (magneto resistors, Hall probe, ferromagnetic sensors) - applications in the medicine, tactile temperature sensors - resistive (metal and semiconductor), thermocouples

12.Sensors for temperature and chemical contamination monitoring, radiation detectors, contact less thermometers and biosensors

13.Optical fibre sensors for measuring the basic physical quantities, spectrophotometry

14.Intelligent and smart sensors, signal evaluation, micro-actuators - principles, and applications in human body (cardiac stimulators, neuro-implants)

Syllabus of tutorials:

1.Introduction, security of work in the lab, lab rules and lab equipment. Revise of the demands for passing the subject, proper literature for seminars and labs, requirements for homeworks and home preparation.

2.Measuring of the basic properties of the diedes (Si, Ge, Schottky, LED, tunnel) - current-voltage characteristic and reverse recovery time. Measurement of the voltage stabilizer with the Zener diode.

3.Measurement of the static input and output BJT characteristics, stabilization of the DC operation point.

4.Measurement of the BJT amplifier (common emitter, common collector, common base), determination of the input and output differential resistance and influence of the blocking capacitor on the amplification.

5.Measurement of the static output characteristic of the unipolar transistor MOSFET, stabilization of the DC operation point, deretmination of the parameters y21 and y22.

6.MOSFETs for DC/DC converters

7.Pressure sensors (characteristics, application for the blood pressure monitoring), force sensor (characteristics, properties of the strain gauge bridge)

8.LVDT posture sensor (characteristic, measurement of the synchronous converter), Induction and turbine sensor as a flow-meter, current-voltage characteristic of the thermistor as a function of the flow velocity, design of the thermistor based anemometer.

9.Measurement of the residual field of the pulmonary dust centers on the model using the flux gate magnetometer and nonmagnetic positioning device. Creation of the 3D magnetic gradient map. Measurement of the stomach volume using the induction method. Influence of the sensor positioning on the accuracy of the measurement. Impedance of the inductor and its frequency dependency.

10.Optoelectronic sensors (spectral characteristics of the light sources, implementation of the IR gate), measurement of the physiologic properties of the human sight and hearing.

11.Radioactive irradiation sensors - Geiger Muller counter, lightening sensors. Detectors of the chemical pollution, sensors for detection of the chemical vapors and gases and humidity.

12.Velocity sensors and displacement sensors, accelerometers for measurement of the inclination and vibrations. Anemometric measurement and cooling.

13.Contamination and pH factor of the water. Sensor for water contamination detection and pH measurement. Final test.

14.Final measurement, final test correction, credit award.

Study Objective:

Identification of basic types and functions of electronic devices as well as sensors used in medial diagnostics and instrumentation.

Study materials:

[1] Foit,J: Basic Electronics, textbook, CTU in Prague, 2005

[2] Foit,J.: Electronics Fundamentals, CTU in Prague, 2007

[3] Wilson,J.: Sensor Technology Handbook, Elsevier, 2005

[4] Gardner,J.W.: Microsensors - Principles and Applications. John Wiley & Sons, New York, USA 1994

The course is a part of the following study plans: